This UNESCO World Heritage site on horseback. Built from 800BC to 100 AD by Nabetean Arabs as a fortress, Petra was carved out of craggy rocks in an area which was virtually inaccessible. In the first and second century, the city reached the apex of its prosperity under Roman rule. When shipping slowly displaced caravan routes, however, the city’s importance gradually dwindled. Petra fell into disuse and was lost to the world until 1812, when it was “re-discovered” by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. Today, Petra is Jordan’s number one tourist attraction, known as the “rose-red city half as old as time”. The city covers an area of about 100 square kilometers, where over 800 monuments can be found.